It is widely believed that the lower blood pressure, the better. However, this is not always true.
Under some conditions, low blood pressure may also be a cause for concern, especially in older people. In order to do its job properly, blood pressure must be high enough to supply the limbs, organs and brain with blood and oxygen. However, whether it is low or high depends more on your health history than on the numbers on the device. For example, blood pressure of 90/60 may be quite normal for young and healthy person, while in an adult patient with cardiovascular problems, blood pressure 115/70 mmHg can be considered low, causing weakness and dizziness.
What does blood pressure depend on?
Blood pressure depends on three things:
- Stroke volume, which means the amount of blood expelled from the heart
- Hearth rhythm
- Tone of the blood vessels which means how clean and flexible they are
Diseases affecting some of these conditions can cause low blood pressure. For example, heart failure in combination with low stroke volume can be problematic if the person’s blood vessels fail to response and maintain adequate values.
An excessively slow heart rate, called bradycardia, can also lead to dangerously low heart rates.
Some disease can damage the health of blood vessels and lead to low blood pressure. These include various infections, paralysis (may be related to a stroke or injury) and some endocrine diseases, such as low cortisol levels.
Autonomic disorders can lower or increase the tone of blood vessels and heart rhythm. As a result, blood pressure can vary.
What does arterial hypotension mean?
Тhe medical term for low blood pressure is hypotension. It is characterized by values below 105/70 mm Hg. Low blood pressure can affect people of all ages, from which elderly and pregnant women are at risk. In fact, low blood pressure is a common condition during pregnancy, especially in the first 24 weeks. This is due to the circulating active hormone progesterone in the body, which relaxes the walls of the blood vessels, and this leads to a decrease in the blood pressure.
The three main types of hypotension
It is observed when making sudden movements (eg abrupt straightening) or immediately after eating, it lasts only a few seconds, and it is enough for a person to sit down for the dizziness or blackening to pass. This type of hypotension is due to circulatory disorders or dehydration of the body.
It occurs in the absence of synchronization between the brain and the nerve sensors. In this case, the brain receives “wrong signals”, which say that the blood pressure is high, without actually being so, and accordingly sends impulses to slow the heartbeat. Neurogenic hypotension is observed in a state of stress, fear.
Acute / severe hypotension
The state of shock for the body is manifested with the so-called severe hypotension. During shock, the blood pressure drops so much that the brain stops sending impulses to other organs, which causes confusion in their functioning. This can lead to severe conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney failure, intestinal ischemia.
This shock of the body can be caused by severe septic infection, anaphylactic shock or allergy to certain drugs, internal or external bleeding, severe burns, impaired kidney and heart function.